Research

We would like to thank and acknowledge the work that Ralf Schlosser has put into researching and gathering the following information. Ralf will be adding to this Bliss Research section from time to time. Thanks Ralf from your friends at BCI.  

This section provides a topical listing of references relative to Blissymbol research. References are drawn from a number of sources, including reference lists known to the developers of this webpage or lists from other colleagues, database searches, ISAAC proceedings, submissions by readers to the website, AAC Thesis and Dissertations (Lloyd, Koul, & Arvidson, 1996), ISAAC proceedings, submissions by readers to the website, and Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Although we hope that this topical bibliography will become more and more complete, at no point do we claim completeness. Listing on this page should not be taken as an official endorsement by Blissymbolics Communication International concerning the quality of this work.

 

LEARNING OR ACQUISITION OF BLISSYMBOLS

Fuller, D. R. (1985). A response to Luftig and Bersani: An investigation of two variables influencing Blissymbol learnability with nonhandicapped adults. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 1, 122-123.

Fuller, D. R. (1997). Initial study into the effects of translucency and complexity on the learning of Blissymbols by children and adults with normal cognitive abilities. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 13, 30-39.

Fuller, D. R., & Lloyd, L. L. (1992). Effects of physical configuration on the paired-associate learning of Blissymbols by preschool children with normal cognitive abilities. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 1376-1383.

Goossens’, C. A. (1984). The relative iconicity and learnability of verb referents differentially represented as manual signs, Blissymbolics, and Rebus symbols: An investigation with moderately retarded individuals (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University, 1983.). Dissertation Abstracts International, 45, 809A.

Hughes, M. J. (1979). Sequencing of visual and auditory stimuli in teaching words and Blissymbols to the mentally retarded. Australian Journal of Mental Retardation, 5, 298-302.

Hurlbut, B. I., Iwata, B. A., & Green, J. D. (1982). Nonvocal language acquisition in adolescents with severe physical disabilities: Blissymbols versus iconic stimulus formats. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 241-258.

Kalimikerakis, C. (1983). Training mentally handicapped children to use Blissymbolics. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Institute of Education. University of London.

Koul, R., & Lloyd, L. L. (1998). Comparison of graphic symbol learning in individuals with aphasia and right hemisphere brain damage. Brain and Language. (Link to abstract)

Luftig, R. L., & Bersani, H. A. (1985a). An investigation of two variables influencing Blissymbol learnability with nonhandicapped adults. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 1, 32-37.

Luftig, R. L., & Bersani, H. A. (1985b). An initial investigation of the effects of translucency, transparency, and component complexity of Blissymbolics. Journal of Childhood Communication Disorders, 8, 191-209.

Mizuko, M. (1987). Transparency and ease of learning of symbols represented by Blissymbolics, PCS, and Picsyms. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 3, 129-136.

Mizuko, M., & Reichle, J. (1989). Transparency and recall of symbols among intellectually handicapped adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 54, 627-633.

Murphy, G. H., Steele, K, Gilligan, T., Yeow, J., & Spare,D. (1977). Teaching a picture language to a non-speaking retarded boy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 198-201.

Nail-Chiwetalu, B. J. (1992). The influence of symbol and learner factors on the learnability of Blissymbols by students with mental retardation. (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University, 1991). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 1125A.

Oliver, P. R. (1983). Effects of teaching different tasks in group versus individual training formats with severely handicapped individuals. TASH Journal, 8, 79-91.

Raghavendra, P., & Fristoe, M. (1995). "No shoes; they walked away?": Effects of enhancements on learning and using Blissymbols by normal 3-year-old children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38, 174-188.

Ross, A. J. (1979). A study of the application of Blissymbolics as a means of communication for a young brain damaged adult. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 14, 103-109.

Sawyer-Woods, L. (1987). Symbolic function in a severe nonverbal aphasic. Aphasiology, 1, 287-290.

Saya, M. J. (1980). Blissymbols: an alternate system of communication for the nonverbal adult aphasic patient. Human Communication, Spring 1980, 43-39.

Schlosser, R. W., & Lloyd, L. L. (1993). The effects of initial element teaching on Blissymbol compound acquisition and generalization within a story-telling context. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 979-995.

Schlosser, R. W., & Lloyd, L. L. (1997). Effects of paired-associate learning versus symbol explanations on Blissymbol learning and use. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 13, 226-238. (Link to abstract)

Song, A. (1979). Acquisition and use of Blissymbols by severely mentally retarded adolescents. Mental Retardation, 17, 253-255.

 

BLISSYMBOLICS AND SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

 

PEOPLE WITH APHASIA

Funnell, E., & Allport, A. (1989). Symbolically speaking: Communicating with Blissymbols in aphasia. Aphasiology, 3, 279-300.

Koul, R., & Lloyd, L. L. (in press). Comparison of graphic symbol learning in individuals with aphasia and right hemisphere brain damage. Brain and Language.

Sawyer-Woods, L. (1987). Symbolic function in a severe nonverbal aphasic. Aphasiology, 1, 287-290.

Saya, M. J. (1980). Blissymbols: an alternate system of communication for the nonverbal adult aphasic patient. Human Communication, Spring 1980, 43-39.

 

PEOPLE WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

Hurlbut, B. I., Iwata, B. A., & Green, J. D. (1982). Nonvocal language acquisition in adolescents with severe physical disabilities: Blissymbols versus iconic stimulus formats. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 241-258.

 

PEOPLE WITH MENTAL RETARDATION

Goossens’, C. A. (1984). The relative iconicity and learnability of verb referents differentially represented as manual signs, Blissymbolics, and Rebus symbols: An investigation with moderately retarded individuals (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University, 1983.). Dissertation Abstracts International, 45, 809A.

Hughes, M. J. (1979). Sequencing of visual and auditory stimuli in teaching words and Blissymbols to the mentally retarded. Australian Journal of Mental Retardation, 5, 298-302.

Kalimikerakis, C. (1983). Training mentally handicapped children to use Blissymbolics. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Institute of Education. University of London.

Mizuko, M., & Reichle, J. (1989). Transparency and recall of symbols among intellectually handicapped adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 54, 627-633.

Murphy, G. H., Steele, K, Gilligan, T., Yeow, J., & Spare,D. (1977). Teaching a picture language to a non-speaking retarded boy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 198-201.

Nail-Chiwetalu, B. J. (1992). The influence of symbol and learner factors on the learnability of Blissymbols by students with mental retardation. (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University, 1991). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 1125A.

Oliver, P. R. (1983). Effects of teaching different tasks in group versus individual training formats with severely handicapped individuals. TASH Journal, 8, 79-91.

Song, A. (1979). Acquisition and use of Blissymbols by severely mentally retarded adolescents. Mental Retardation, 17, 253-255.

 

PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

Hurlbut, B. I., Iwata, B. A., & Green, J. D. (1982). Nonvocal language acquisition in adolescents with severe physical disabilities: Blissymbols versus iconic stimulus formats. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 241-258.

 

PEOPLE WITH BRAIN INJURY

Koul, R., & Lloyd, L. L. (1998). Comparison of graphic symbol learning in individuals with aphasia and right hemisphere brain damage. Brain and Language.

Ross, A. J. (1979). A study of the application of Blissymbolics as a means of communication for a young brain damaged adult. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 14, 103-109.

 

PEOPLE WITHOUT DISABILITIES

Bloomberg, K., Karlan, G. R., & Lloyd, L. L. (1990). The comparative translucency of initial lexical items represented in five graphic symbol systems and sets. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 717-725.

Fuller, D. R. (1997). Initial study into the effects of translucency and complexity on the learning of Blissymbols by children and adults with normal cognitive abilities. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 13, 30-39.

Fuller, D. R., & Lloyd, L. L. (1992). Effects of physical configuration on the paired-associate learning of Blissymbols by preschool children with normal cognitive abilities. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 1376-1383.

Lloyd, L. L., Karlan, G. R., & Nail-Chiwetalu, B. (1994). Translucency values for 910 Blissymbols. Unpublished manuscript, Purdue University, IN.

Luftig, R. L., & Bersani, H. A. (1985). An investigation of two variables influencing Blissymbol learnability with nonhandicapped adults. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 1, 32-37.

Luftig, R. L., & Bersani, H. A. (1985b). An initial investigation of the effects of translucency, transparency, and component complexity of Blissymbolics. Journal of Childhood Communication Disorders, 8, 191-209.

Mizuko, M. (1987). Transparency and ease of learning of symbols represented by Blissymbolics, PCS, and Picsyms. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 3, 129-136.

Raghavendra, P., & Fristoe, M. (1995). "No shoes; they walked away?": Effects of enhancements on learning and using Blissymbols by normal 3-year-old children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38, 174-188.

Schlosser, R. W., & Lloyd, L. L. (1993). The effects of initial element teaching on Blissymbol compound acquisition and generalization within a story-telling context. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 979-995.

Schlosser, R. W., & Lloyd, L. L. (1997). Effects of paired-associate learning versus symbol explanations on Blissymbol learning and use. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 13, 226-238.

 

PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BLISSYMBOLS

Bloomberg, K., Karlan, G. R., & Lloyd, L. L. (1990). The comparative translucency of initial lexical items represented in five graphic symbol systems and sets. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 717-725.

Fuller, D. R. (1985). A response to Luftig and Bersani: An investigation of two variables influencing Blissymbol learnability with nonhandicapped adults. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 1, 122-123.

Fuller, D. R., & Lloyd, L. L. (1987). A study of physical and semantic characteristics of a graphic symbol system as predictors of perceived complexity. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 3, 26-35.

Fuller, D. R., & Stratton, M. M. (1991). Representativeness versus translucency: Different theoretical backgrounds, but are they really different concepts? A position paper. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 7, 51-58.

Lloyd, L. L., Karlan, G. R., & Nail-Chiwetalu, B. (1994). Translucency values for 910 Blissymbols. Unpublished manuscript, Purdue University, IN.

Mirenda, P., & Locke, P. A. (1989). A comparison of symbol transparency in nonspeaking persons with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 54, 131-140.

Musselwhite, C. R., & Ruscello, D. (1984). Transparency of three communication symbol systems. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 27, 436-443.

Raghavendra, P., & Fristoe, M. (1990). "A spinach with a V on it": What three-year-old children see in standard and enhanced Blissymbols. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 55, 149-159.

Soto, G., Cassidy, M. J., & Madanat, S. M. (1996). Appication of ordered probit techniques to analyze ratings of Blissymbol complexity. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 12, 122-126.

 

SURVEYS ON BLISSYMBOL USE

Udwin, O., & Yule, W. (1990). Augmentative communication systems taught to cerebral palsied children - a longitudinal study. I. The acquisition of signs and symbols, and syntactic aspects of their use over time. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 25, 295-309.

 

BLISSYMBOLICS AND LITERACY

Dahlgren Sandberg, A. (1996). Literacy abilities in nonvocal children with cerebral palsy. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Goteborg University, Sweden.

Dahlgren Sandberg, A., & Hjelmquist, E. (1996a). Phonologic awareness and literacy abilities in nonspeaking preschool children with cerebral palsy. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 12, 138-153.

Dahlgren Sandberg, A., & Hjelmquist, E. (1996b). A comparative, descriptive study of reading and writing skills among non-speaking children: a preliminary study. European Journal of Disorders of Communication, 31, 289-308.

McNaughton. S. (1998). Reading acquisition of adults with severe congenital speech and physical impairments: Theoretical infrastructure, empirical investigation, educational application. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Toronto, Canada.

McNaughton, S. (1993). Graphic representation systems and literacy learning. Topics in Language Disorders, 13, 58-76.

McNaughton, S., & Lindsay, P. (1995). Approaching literacy with AAC graphics. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 11, 212-218.

Nir, M. (1998) Improving child literacy intervention by integrating Blissymbols into the communication board. Presentation at 7th Symposium on Literacy and Disabilities, The Center for Literacy and Disability Studies, Duke University Medical Canter, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

 

BLISSYMBOLICS AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

 

SEMANTICS AND CONCEPT FORMATION

Schlosser, R. W. (1997). Nomenclature and category levels in graphic symbols, Part I: Is a flower a flower a flower? Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 13, 4-13.

Schlosser, R. W. (1997). Nomenclature and category levels in graphic symbols, Part II: The role of similarity in categorization. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 13, 14-29.

 

SYNTAX

Soto, G., & Toro-Zambrana, W. (1995). Investigation of Blissymbol use from a language research paradigm. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 11, 118-130.

 

BLISSYMBOLICS AND COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

Jennische, M. & Lorstrom, K. (1996). Evaluation of spontaneous communication with focus on Blissymbols. Paper presented at the Fifth Biennial Conference of the International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication, Vancouver, Canada.

Sutton, A.C. (1989). The Social-verbal competence of AAC Users. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 5, 150-164

 

REVIEWS OF BLISS RESEARCH

Gangkofer, M. (1989). Zum Stand der Forschung ueber die BLISS-Symbol-Kommunikationsmethode: Ein Literaturbericht. Zeitschrift fuer Heilpaedagogik, 40, 300-305.

 

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